Publications
  • Keisuke Ogura, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yuki Ichinose*, Vfr targets promoter of genes encoding methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports (2021) 26, 100944 Link

 

  • Shoko Matsuoka, Karin Sato, Riyo Maruki-Imamura, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Takayoshi Okabe, Hirotatsu Kojima, Taishi Umezawa*, Identification of novel compounds that inhibit SnRK2 kinase activity by high-throughput screening. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications (2021) 537, 57–63 Link

 

  • Stephany Angelia Tmewu, Yujiro Ogawa, Takumi Okamoto, Yuka Sugihara, Hajime Yamada, Fumiko Taguchi, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yuki Ichinose*, Cluster II che genes of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605, orthologs of cluster I in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, are required for chemotaxis and virulence. Molecular Genetics and Genomics (2021) 296, 299–312 Link   

 

  • Stephany Angelia Tmewu, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yuki Ichinose*, Requirement of γ-aminobutlic acid chemotaxis for virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Microbes and Environments (2020) 35(4), ME20114 Link   

 

  • Sobhy S.H. Abdelsalam, Yusuke Kouzai, Megumi Watanabe, Komaki Inoue, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Seiji Tsuge, Keiichi Mochida, and Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Identification of effector candidate genes of Rhizoctonia solani AG-1 IA expressed during infection in Brachypodium distachyon. Scientific Reports (2020) 10, 14889 Link

 

  • Yusuke Kouzai, Minami Shimizu, Komaki Inoue, Yukiko Uehara-Yamaguchi, Kotaro Takahagi, Risa Nakayama, Takakazu Matsuura, Izumi C. Mori, Takashi Hirayama, Sobhy S.H. Abdelsalam, Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, and Keiichi Mochida*, BdWRKY38 is required for the incompatible interaction of Brachypodium distachyon with the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia solani.The Plant Journal (2020) 104(4):995–1008 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Atsushi Toyoda, Tomoya Ishii, Kirara Saito, Megumi Watanabe, and Akira Kawaguchi, Complete genome sequence data of nonpathogenic Rhizobium vitis strain VAR03-1, a biological control agent for grapevine crown gall diseaseMolecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2020) 33(12):1451–1453 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Atsushi Toyoda, Tomoya Ishii, Kirara Saito, Megumi Watanabe, and Akira Kawaguchi, Complete genome sequence data of nonpathogenic and nonantagonistic strain of Rhizobium vitis VAR06-30 isolated from grapevine rhizosphere. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2020) 33(11):1283–1285 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Atsushi Toyoda, Tomoya Ishii, Kirara Saito, Megumi Watanabe, and Akira Kawaguchi, Complete genome sequence data of tumorigenic Rhizobium vitis strain VAT03-9, a causal agent of grapevine crown gall disease. Molecular Plant-Microbe Interactions (2020) 33(11):1280–1282 Link

 

  • Kamrun Nahar, Takafumi Mukaihara, Fumiko Taguchi, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Yuki Ichinose*, HopH1 effectors of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 and pv. syringae B728a induce HR cell death on nonhost eggplant Solanum torvum. Journal of General Plant Pathology online early view Link

 

  • Yuki Ichinose*, Takafumi Nishimura, Minori Harada, Ryota Kashiwagi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Fumiko Taguchi, Daigo Takemoto, and Hidenori Matsui, Role of two sets of RNA-type multidrug efflux pump transporter genes, mexAB-oprM and mexEF-oprN, in virulence of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. The Plant Pathology Journal(2020) 36(2):148–156 Link

 

  • Le Thi Phuong, Aprilia Nur Fitrianti, Mai Thanh Luan, Hidenori Matsui, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Kazuhiro Toyoda*, Antagonism between SA- and JA-signaling conditioned by saccharin in Arabidopsis renders resistance to a specific pathogen. Journal of General Plant Pathology(2020) 86(2):86–99 Link

 

  • Mai Thanh Luan, Tatsuhiro Kawasaki, Aprilia Nur Fitrianti, Tsugumi Shiokawa, Hiroko Tada, Hidenori Matsui, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Kazuhiro Toyoda*, Endogenous suppressor(s) in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of General Plant Pathology(2020) 86(2):100–106 Link

 

  • Le Thi Phuong, Lei Zhao, Aprilia Nur Fitrianti, Hidenori Matsui, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Kazuhiro Toyoda*. The plant activator saccharin induces resistance to wheat powdery mildew through activation of multiple defense-related genes. Journal of General Plant Pathology(2020) 86(2):107–113 Link

 

  • Yuki Ichinose*, Yousuke Tasaka, Satoru Yamamoto, Yuko Inoue, Motohiro Takata, Yukiko Nakatsu, Fumiko Taguchi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, and Hidenori Matsui, PsyR, a transcriptional regulator in quorum sensing system, binds lux box-like sequence in psyI promoter without AHL quorum sensing signal molecule and activates psyI transcription with AHL in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Journal of General Plant Pathology(2020) 86(2):124–133 Link

 

  • Lei Zhao, Le Thi Phuong, Mai Thanh Luan, Aprilia Nur Fitrianti, Hidenori Matsui, Hirofumi Nakagami, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinoase, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Kazuhiro Toyoda*, A class III peroxidase PRX34 is a component of disease resistance in Arabidopsis. Journal of General Plant Pathology (2019) 85(6):405–412 Link

 

  • Yukiko Nakatsu, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Toyoda, and Yuki Ichinoase*, Quprum-dependent expression of rsmX and rsmY, small non-coding RNAs, in Pseudomonas syringae. Microbiological Research (2019) 223225:7275 Link

 

  • Akira Kawaguchi*, Mizuho Nita, Tomoya Ishii, Megumi Watanabe, and Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Biological control agent Rhizobium (=Agrobacterium) vitis strain ARK-1 suppresses expression of the essential and non-essential vir genes of tumorigenic R. vitis. BMC Research Notes (2019) 12:1  Link

 

  • Yusuke Kouzai, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Komaki Inoue, Minami Shimizu, Yoshihiko Onda, and Keiichi Mochida*, Benzothiadiazole, a plant defense inducer, negatively regulates sheath blight resistance in Brachypodium distachyon. Scientific Reports (2018) 8(1):17358  Link

 

  • Takashi Okamoto, Shogo Takatani, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Hiroyasu Motose, and Taku Takahashi*, Omeprazole enhances mechanical stress-induced root growth reduction in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant & Cell Physiology (2018) 59(8):15811591  Link

 

  • Geofrey Sing’ombe Ombiro, Taku Sawai, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Yuta Nishina, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Toyoda, and Yuki Ichinose*, Specific growth inhibitors of Ralstonia solanacearum, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae, X. campestris pv. campestris, and Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis. Microbiological Research (2018) 215:2925  Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, and Ken Shirasu*, A high-throughput chemical screening method for inhibitors and potentiators of hypersensitive cell death using suspension cell culture of Arabidopsis thaliana. In: Fauser F., Jonikas M. (eds) Plant Chemical Genomics. Methods in Molecular Biology (2018) Vol.1795, pp 3947, Humana Press, New York, NY Link

 

  • Takahiro Sawada, Miho Eguchi, Seiya Asaki, Ryota Kashiwagi, Kousuke Shimomura, FUmiko Taguchi, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Kazuhiro Ichinose, and Yuki Ichinose*, MexEF-OprN multidrug efflux pump transporter negatively controls N-acylhomoserine lactone accumulation in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Molecular Genetics and Genomics (2018) 293(4):907–917  Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Plant science: New insights into infection strategy of Rhizoctonia solani, a causal agent for rice sheath blight, highlighted by the plant defense mechanism. OKAYAMA UNIV. e-Bulletin (2018) Vol.21, pp1113 Link

 

  • Kirara Saito, Megumi Watanabe, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Akira Kawaguchi, and Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Characterization of the suppressive effects of the biological control strain VAR03-1 of Rhizobium vitis on the virulence of tumorigenic R. vitis. Journal of General Plant Pathology (2018) 84(1):5864 Link

 

  • Yusuke Kouzai, Mamiko Kimura, Megumi Watanabe, Kazuki Kusunoki, Daiki Osaka, Tomoko Suzuki, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Takakazu Matsuura, Izumi C. Mori, Takashi Hirayama, Eiichi Minami, Yoko Nishizawa, Komaki Inoue, Yoshihiko Onda, Keiichi Mochida, and Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Salicylic acid-dependent immunity contributes to resistance against Rhizoctonia solani, a necrotrophic fungal agent of sheath blight, in rice and Brachypodium distachyon. New Phytologist (2018) 217(2):771783 Link

 

  • 能年義輝*, プラントアクティベーターの探索研究の動向. 植物防疫 (2017) 71(2) 6973 (in Japanese) Link

 

  • 能年義輝, 香西雄介, 渡邉恵植物病害抵抗性誘導剤および植物病害防除方法. 特願2016221072

 

  • Yusuke Kouzai, Mamiko Kimura, Yurie Yamanaka, Megumi Watanabe, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yoshihiro Onda, Keiichi Mochida, and Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Expression profiling of marker genes responsive to the defence-associated phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid and ethylene in Brachypodium distachyon. BMC Plant Biology (2016) 16:59 Link

 

  • Kazuhiro Toyoda*, Sachiyo Yao, Mai Takagi, Maki Uchioki, Momiji Miki, Kaori Tanaka, Tomoko Suzuki, Masashi Amano, Akinori Kiba, Toshiaki Kato, Hirotaka Takahashi, Yasuhiro Ishiga, Hidenori Matsui, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, and Tomonori Shiraishi, The plant cell wall as a site for molecular contacts in fungal pathogenesis. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology (2016) 95:4449 Link

 

  • Yuki Ichinose*, Takahiro Sawada, Hidenori Matsui, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, and Fumiko Taguchi, Motility-mediated regulation of virulence in Pseudomonas syringae. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology (2016) 95:5054  Link

 

  • 一瀬勇規*, 澤田貴博, 髙田基弘, 山本悟, 藤山友里, 中津有紀子, 田阪洋昌, 下村洪祐, 田口富美子, 松井英譲, 山本幹博, 能年義輝, 豊田和弘, Pseudomonas syringaeの菌体密度感知機構と多剤排出ポンプの病原力における役割. 植物細菌病談話会論文集 (2016) 27:7788. (in Japanese)

 

  • 能年義輝*, 植物科学におけるハイスループットケミカルスクリーニングとその利用. Application of high-throughput chemical screening in plant science. 植物の生長調節 Regulation of Plant Growth & Development (2016) 51(2) 138143 (in Japanese)  Link

 

  • Kayoko Fujioka, Haruko Gotoh, Taku Noumi, Ami Yoshida, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Yoshi-Shige Inagaki, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Yuki Ichinose, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Kazuhiro Toyoda*, Protection induced by volatile limonene against anthracnose disease in Arabidopsis thaliana. Journal of General Plant Pathology (2015) 81(6):415–41Link

 

  • 能年義輝*, 植物ケミカルバイオロジー研究と病害防除への多様な応用展開. 植物感染生理談話会論文集(第50号)感染と防御をめぐる新潮流 (2015) pp.7382 (in Japanese)  Link

 

  • Fumiko Taguchi, Yuko Inoue, Tomoko Suzuki, Yoshi-Shige Inagaki, Mikihiro Yamamoto, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Yuki Ichinose*, Characterization of quoram sensing-controlled transcriptional regulator MarR and Rieske (2Fe-2S) cluster-containing protein (Orf5) that are involved in resistance to environmental stresses in Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci 6605. Molecular Plant Pathology (2015) 16(4):376–387 Link

 

  • 能年義輝*, 植物免疫活性化剤とその農業利用. 日本応用酵素協会誌 (2015) 50:110 (in Japanese)

 

  • 能年義輝*, 植物免疫プライミング剤の単離と作用機序解明. 岡山大学農学部学術報告 (2014) 103:3136 (in Japanese) Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Identification of new plant activator compounds for sustainable agriculture. OKAYAMA UNIV. e-Bulletin (2013) Vol.2, pp1011 Link (PDF)

 

  • Mizuki Kitamatsu*, Mayumi Kitabatake, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, and Takashi Ohtsuki, Synthesis and properties of peptide dendrimers containing fluorescent and branched amino acids. Peptide Science (2013) 100(1):6470 Link

 

  • Yoshi-Shige Inagaki*, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Keiko Fujita, Atsuko Imaoka, Sakae Arase, Kazuhiro Toyoda, Tomonori Shiraishi, and Yuki Ichinose, Infection-inhibition activity of avenacin saponins against the cereal pathogens Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei, Bipolaris oryzae, and Magnaporthe oryzae. Journal of General Plant Pathology (2013) 79(1):6973 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Mika Ikeda, and Ken Shirasu. Diuretics prime plant immunity in Arabidopsis thaliana. PLoS ONE (2012) 7(10):e48443 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Mika Ikeda, Tamio Saito, Hiroyuki Osada, and Ken Shirasu, Sulfonamides identifided as plant immune-priming compounds in high-throughput chemical screening increase disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Frontiers in Plant Science (2012) 3:245 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Masateru Okazaki, and Ken Shirasu, Imprimatins A and B: Novel plant activators targeting salicylic acid metabolism in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signaling & Behavior (2012) 7(12):17151717 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi†*, Masateru Okazaki†, and Ken Shirasu, Isolation and characterization of the plant immune-priming compounds Imprimatin B3 and -B4, potentiators of disease resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signaling & Behavior (2012) 7(12):15261528 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Yusuke Jikumaru, Yuji Kamiya, and Ken Shirasu, ImprimatinC1, a novel plant immune-priming compound, functions as a partial agonist of salicylic acid. Scientific Reports (2012) 2:705 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi*, Masateru Okazaki, Tatsuya Kida, Yuta Nishina, Yoshihio Morishita, Takumi Ogawa, Hideyuki Suzuki, Daisuke Shibata, Yusuke Jikumaru, Atsushi Hanada, Yuji Kamiya, and Ken Shirasu, Novel plant immune-priming compounds identified via high-throughput chemical screening target salicylic acid glucosyltransferases in Arabidopsis. The Plant Cell (2012) 24(9):37953804 Link

 

  • Kaori Yoshimoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Ken-ichiro Hayashi, Ken Shirasu, Taku Takahashi, and Hiroyasu Motose*, Thermospermine suppresses auxin-inducible xylem differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Signaling & Behavior (2012) 7(8):937939 Link

 

  • Kaori Yoshimoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Ken-ichiro Hayashi, Ken Shirasu, Taku Takahashi, and Hiroyasu Motose*, A chemical biology approach reveals an opposite action between thermospermine and auxin in xylem development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology (2012) 53(4):635645 Link

 

  • 鳴坂義弘*, 平塚和之, 能年義輝, プラントアクティベーターによる植物免疫の活性化と化学遺伝学への利用. 化学と生物 (2010) 48(10):706712 Link

 

  • Mari Narusaka, Ken Shirasu, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Yasuyuki Kubo, Tomonori Shirasishi, Masaki Iwabuchi, and Yoshihiro Narusaka*, RRS1 and RPS4 provide a dual Resistance-gene system against fungal and bacterial pathogens, The Plant Journal (2009) 60(2):218226 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi and Ken Shirasu, PLANT DISEASE RESISTANCE INDUCER. International Application No. PCT/JP2009/056922

 

  • 門田康弘, 能年義輝, 白須賢*, 抵抗性蛋白質複合体. 蛋白質核酸酵素 (2007) 52(6):717723 (in Japanese) Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Takashi Kuromori, Takuji Wada, Asako Kamiya, Yuko Imura, Michiko Yasuda, Hideo Nakashita, Ken Shirasu, and Kazuo Shinozaki*, Loss of NECROTIC SPOTTED LESIONS 1 associates with cell death and defense responses in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Molecular Biology (2006) 62(1-2):2942 Link

 

  • Miki Fujita, Yasunari Fujita, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Fuminori Takahashi, Yoshihiro Narusaka, Kazuko Yamaguchi-Shinozaki, and Kazuo Shinozaki*, Crosstalk between abitoic and biotic stress responses: A current view from the points of convergence in the stress signaling networks. Current Opinion in Plant Biology (2006) 9(4):436442 Link

 

  • 市村和也, 能年義輝, 白須賢*, 植物免疫におけるMAPキナーゼカスケードの役割. 化学と生物 (2006) 44(7):466471 (in Japanese) Link

 

  • 能年義輝, 市村和也, 白須賢*, 植物病害抵抗性R蛋白質の分子制御機構. 蛋白質核酸酵素 (2006) 51(5):408418 (in Japanese) Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Takuya Ito, Motoaki Seki, Hideo Nakashita, Shigeo Yoshida, Yves Marco, Ken Shirasu, and Kazuo Shinozaki*, A single amino acid insertion in the WRKY domain of the Arabidopsis TIR-NBS-LRR-WRKY-type disease resistance protein SLH1 (sensitive to low humidity 1) causes activation of defense responses and hypersensitive cell death. The Plant Journal (2005) 43(6):873888 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Takuya Ito, and Kazuo Shinozaki*, ALBINO AND PALE GREEN 10 encodes BBMII isomerase involved in histidine biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant and Cell Physiology (2005) 46(7):11651172 Link

 

  • Takuya Ito, Reiko Motohashi, Takashi Kuromori, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Motoaki Seki, Asako Kamiya, Saho Mizukado, Tetsuya Sakurai, and Kazuo Shinozaki*, A resource of 5814 Dissociation transposon-tagged and sequence-indexed lines of Arabidopsis transposed from start loci on chromosome 5. Plant and Cell Physiology (2005) 46(7):11491153 Link

 

  • Yoshitaka Yamamoto, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Makoto Fujie, Shoji Usami, and Takashi Yamada*, Analysis of double-strand-break repair by Chlorella retrotransposon Zepp. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (2000) 44:101102 Link

 

  • Shinya Maki, Yutaka Ohta, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Makoto Fujie, Shoji Usami, and Takashi Yamada*, Mapping of cDNA clomes on contig of Chlorella chromosome I. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering (2000) 90(4):431436 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Yutaka Ohta, Shinya Maki, Makoto Fujie, Shoji Usami, and Takashi Yamada*, Location of cDNA clones on the Chlorella chromosome I contig. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (1998) 39:183184

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Yukari Ito, Shinsaku Kanetani, Makoto Fujie, Shouji Usami, and Takashi Yamada*, Molecular anatomy of a small chromosome in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris. Nucleic Acids Research (1998) 26(17):39003907 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Ryota Arai, Makoto Fujie, and Takashi Yamada*, Structure of the Chlorella Zepp retrptransposon: Nested Zepp clusters in the genome. Molecular and General Genetics (1998) 259(3):256263 Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Ryota Arai, Makoto Fujie, and Takashi Yamada*, Designing of artificial chromosome (PAC) by using the Chlorella smallest chromosome as a model system. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (1997) 37:143144

 

  • Takanobu Higashiyama†, Yoshiteru Noutoshi†, Makoto Fujie, and Takashi Yamada*, Zepp, a LINE-like retrotransposon accumulated in the Chlorella telomeric region. The EMBO Journal (1997) 16(12):37153723 (†, Equally contribution) Link

 

  • Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Takanobu Higashiyama, Makoto Fujie, and Takashi Yamada*, Zepp, a LINE-like retrotransposon found in the Chlorella telomeres. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (1996) 35:305306

 

  • Miho Akiba, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Shinya Maki, Takanobu Higashiyama, and Takashi Yamada*, Molecular characterization of Chlorella chromosomes: screening of bent DNAs. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (1995) 34:7374

 

  • Takanobu Higashiyama, Yoshiteru Noutoshi, Miho Akiba, and Takashi Yamada*, Telomere and LINE-like elements at the termini of the Chlorella chromosome I. Nucleic Acids Symposium Series (1995) 34:7172